Chemical Composition of Natural Medicine

  • Extraction and Content Detection of the Total Flavonoids in Different Parts of Leontopodium franchetii Beauv. at Different Harvest Periods

    Xiaoyan ZHAO;Yun TENG;Yijun CHEN;Panpan LIU;Yuan LIU;

    [Objective] To verify the correctness of " the harvest period of Leontopodium franchetii Beauv. was flowering period and the medicinal part was leaves and flowers ". [Methods] With rutin as the reference substances,total flavonoids contents in different parts of L. franchetii at different harvest periods were detected. The detection wavelength was 512 nm. Effects of different factors on the extraction rate of total flavonoids were investigated,such as extraction solvents,solid-liquid ratio,extraction methods and extraction times. And the optimal extraction technology for total flavonoids was selected.[Results]The optimal extraction technology for total flavonoids from L. franchetii was as follows: 70% ethanol,1 g: 50 m L solid-liquid ratio,three extraction times,water-bath reflux extraction after ultrasonic-assisted extraction at 35 ℃ for 0. 5 h. Under this condition,the extraction rate of total flavonoids in L. franchetii leaves at flowering period reached as high as 310. 441 mg / g. Content of total flavonoids at flowering period was significantly higher than that of fruiting period. There were great differences in the content of total flavonoids in different parts of L. franchetii. Contents of total flavonoids in L. franchetii leaves and flowers at flowering period were significantly higher than those in other parts.[Conclusions] The contents of total flavonoids in different parts of L. franchetii at different harvest periods were detected and compared,so as to select the optimal harvest period( flowering period),which was consistent with the " flowering phase was the optimal harvest period of Tibetan herb L. franchetii for fire moxibustion treatment"; and the optimal medicinal parts were leaves and flowers. Therefore,total flavonoids could be used as the evaluation index for the optimal harvest period and medicinal parts of L. franchetii,which provided test foundation for the utilization and quality control of total flavonoids in L. franchetii.

    2015年Z2期 v.6 1-4页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 256K]
  • The Condition Selection of TLC Identification of Astragaloside Ⅳ in Jin Weng Zhili Particle

    Tingting YANG;Qiumin REN;Yinsong RAN;Zhenhua SUN;Qiang YI;Wenjie ZHONG;Juan LIU;

    [Objective] To screen optimum conditions of assay method and thin-layer chromatography was used for qualitative discrimination of astragaloside Ⅳ contained in Jin Weng Zhili particle,which provide basis for quality standard. [Methods] According to method described in Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia,thin-layer chromatography was used for qualitative discrimination of astragaloside Ⅳ contained in Jin Weng Zhili particle by improving extraction method and adjusting the proportion of ingredients in developing solvent. [Results] For identification of astragaloside Ⅳ in Jin Weng Zhili particle using thin-layer chromatography,the results were the optimum after chromatographic condition was improved,ie,extraction,column transferring,developing solvent of trichloromethane-methyl alcohol-water( 10 ∶ 5 ∶ 1) which is better than method described in Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia. [Conclusions] The method is of good feasibility,repeatability and specificity which is benefit to the identification of astragaloside Ⅳ contained in Jin Weng Zhili particle using thin-layer chromatography.

    2015年Z2期 v.6 8-11页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 266K]

Pharmacological and Toxicological Analyses

  • Evaluation of Safety Profile of Jin Weng Zhi Li Extract Used in the Target Animal Chickens

    Zhiqiang YAN;Zhaorong ZHU;Juan LIU;Lihua YUAN;Wenjie ZHONG;

    [Objective] to explore and evaluate the safety of Jin Weng Zhi Li Extract on chickens. [Methods]60 healthy chickens( 3 weeks old) from Rongchang were grouped into four groups,i. e.,blank group,one time the recommended dose group( 0. 4 g / kg),three times the recommended dose group( 1. 2 g / kg),five times the recommended dose group( 2. 0 g / kg). Chickens in blank group were fed with normal saline by gastric infusion( 0. 5 mL per chicken),and chickens were fed with Jin Weng Zhi Li extract solution by gastric infusion,2 times a day,14 consecutive days. During the experiment,the clinical manifestation of chickens were observed,the three major physiological indexes( breathing,pulse,body temperature),daily weight gain,blood routine examination and blood biochemical indexes were determined. The chickens used were dissected at the end of the experiment. Their internal organs were observed to determine if there're macroscopic lesions,and the organs were made into paraffin sections. Then histological observation of the paraffin sections was performed. [Results] The three major physiological indexes,blood routine examination and blood biochemical indexes were all within normal range and of no significant difference( P >0. 05); and no pathological lesions were found by observing the tissue section. [Conclusions]The experimental results indicated that the effect of Jin Weng Zhi Li Extract on the clinical manifestation,haematology and histology was within normal range,and it can be used clinically,and the dose of 1 time the recommended dose and 5 times the recommended dose was within the safe dose range.

    2015年Z2期 v.6 5-7+11页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 140K]
  • Protective Effects of Total Flavonoids in Polygonum perfoliatum L.on the Acute Liver Injury of Mice Induced by CCl_4 and Its Action Mechanism

    Mingli ZHONG;Ya GAO;Yifei CHEN;Kefeng ZHANG;

    [Objective] To research on the protective effects of total flavonoids in Polygonum perfoliatum L. on the acute liver injury of mice induced by CCl4 and its action mechanism. [Methods]Flavonoids were extracted from P. perfoliatum by chemical method. Acute liver injury model of mice was established by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 peanut oil. The biochemical indexes of ALT,AST,TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6in mice serum were detected. Histopathological examination of liver tissue was carried out. [Results] Flavonoids in P. perfoliatum restricted the ALT,AST,TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6 activities in mice serum with acute liver injury( P < 0. 01,P < 0. 05). Results of histopathological examination also showed that flavonoids significantly improved the liver injury of mice. [Conclusions] Flavonoids in P. perfoliatum showed protective effects of acute liver injury of mice induced by CCl4; and its mechanism might be related with anti-inflammation.

    2015年Z2期 v.6 12-13+17页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 162K]
  • Protective Effects of Coriolus versciclor Polysaccharides on Liver Injury of Mice Induced by CCl_4

    Hongmei ZHANG;Jie ZHAO;Shezong SUN;Shoutao GUAN;Weiguo ZHEN;

    [Objective] To discuss the protective effects of Coriolus versciclor polysaccharides on liver injury of mice induced by CCl4.[Methods]40 male Kunming mice at four moths old were randomly divided into four groups,which were control group,model group,C. versciclor polysaccharides protection group and feeds + C. versciclor polysaccharides group. Mice were fed for 8 d. On 2 h after final administration,intraperitoneal injection of blend oil solution was carried out was carried out in control group. And in other groups,intraperitoneal injection of0. 15% CCl4 blend oil solution( 10 mL / kg) was conducted. After 18 h,eyeballs were collected and serum was isolated. Livers were taken out and the hepatosomatic index was calculated. Liver homogenate was prepared and the ALT and AST were detected,as well as the SOD and NOS activities,and MDA,GSH and NO contents.[Results] Compared with model group,C. versciclor polysaccharides in different administration ways reduced the hepatosomatic index( P < 0. 05) and MDA content( P < 0. 001),lowered the AST activity in serum( P < 0. 05),the NOS activity and the NO content( P < 0. 01),and enhanced the SOD activity and GSH content( P < 0. 01).[Conclusions] C. versciclor polysaccharides in different administration ways protected the liver injury of mice induced by CCl4.

    2015年Z2期 v.6 18-20页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 130K]
  • Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Tannin Extracts from Castanea mollissima, Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Quercus aliena Based on Hydrochloric Acid Hydrolysis Extraction Method

    Yu LI;Jian WANG;Hong CHEN;Yajun DU;Xueting ZHOU;Baoshun ZHANG;Lujiang YUAN;

    [Objective] To research the effects of hydrochloric acid hydrolysis extraction on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of tannin extracts from Castanea mollissima,Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Quercus aliena. [Methods] Extracts from C. mollissima,C. glauca and Q. aliena were prepared by water extraction( WE) and ethanol extraction( EE) and HCl( 4 M) hydrolysis extraction( HE),respectively.Their DPPH radical scavenging capabilities,antimicrobial activities and gallic acid contents( GAC) were detected as well as the soluble tannin contents in dry leaves.[Results]The soluble tannin contents in C. mollissima,C. glauca and Q. aliena leaves were 87. 32,76. 89 and 51. 28 mg / g,respectively. HE increased the GAC in the extracts of C. mollissima and C. glauca by 15- 60 and 5- 15 times,respectively,while the GAC in the extracts of Q. aliena remained almost unchanged when compared with WE and EE. Meanwhile,the DPPH scavenging capabilities and antimicrobial activities were also enhanced by HE. C. albicans and C. tropicalis were more sensitive than others to the three plant extracts,especially to C. glauca. Unexpectedly,C. glauca had the highest antimicrobial activity,but its tannin and gallic acid contents were only moderate,indicating that other substance with higher antimicrobial activity existed. [Conclusions]HE enhanced the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of tannin rich extracts of the three plant leaves from the Fagacae family.

    2015年Z2期 v.6 21-24页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 152K]
  • The Acute Toxicity and Subchronic Toxicity Test of Zhuqin Extract

    Guoshu LIUFU;Zhaorong ZHU;Juan LIU;Maixun ZHU;

    [Objective] To investigate the safety of compound Zhuqin extract.[Methods]In acute toxicity test,mice in test group were given compound Zhuqin extract( i. g.) by gavage,the dosage of which was 0. 8,0. 6,0. 45,0. 35 g /20 g,to determine the median lethal dose of compound Zhuqin extract( LD50). In maximum tolerance experiment,mice in test group were given compound Zhuqin extract( i. g.) by gavage,the dosage of which was 0. 5 g /20 g,to determine the maximum tolerance dose( MTD); In the sub- chronic toxicity test,rats in test group were given compound Zhuqin extract( i. g.) by gavage for 30 d,the dosage of which was 2. 0,1. 5,1. 0 g /200 g,and normal saline negative control group was set. Clinic condition of rat was observed everyday,hematology,blood biochemistry,anatomy,organ index and organization pathological observation were conducted after test.[Results]The acute toxicity test failed to detect median lethal dose of compound Zhuqin extract; the weight differences were not significant( P > 0. 05); some blood biochemical criterion and blood routine index had significant differences( 0. 01 < P < 0. 05),and some indexes had extremely differences( P < 0. 01); organ index,necropsy and histopathology had abnormalities.[Conclusions] Compound Zhuqin extract was safe and reliable.

    2015年Z2期 v.6 25-27页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 130K]
  • The Anti-inflammatory and Antiasthma Activities of the Extracts from the Leaves of Elaeagnus macrophylla Thunb.

    Wenyu WANG;Chaoyun WANG;Yan YU;Jianping LIU;

    [Objective] To research on the anti-inflammatory and antiasthma activities of the extracts from the leaves of Elaeagnus macrophylla Thunb.[Methods] Ethanol extracts were obtained from the crude powder of E. macrophylla leaves. Asthmogenic method by nebulization was carried out; auricular swelling of mice was induced by xylene so as to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities. [Results] Extracts from E. macrophylla leaves had relatively strong anti-inflammatory and antiasthma activities,which were significant when the extracts dosage of E. macrophylla was 40 mg / kg. The activities enhanced significantly as the extracts dosage increased.[Conclusions]High-dosage extracts showed the same anti-inflammatory and antiasthma activities as the positive control,which had relatively high values of development and utilization.

    2015年Z2期 v.6 28-29+33页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 125K]
  • Detection of SO_2 Residual in FLOS CHRYSANTHEMI by Accelerated Solvent Extraction/Ion Chromatography

    Jianyang ZHANG;Guoqing WANG;Shouzhen JIN;Guicen MA;Liyan CHEN;Xin LIU;Chengyin LU;

    [Objective] To discuss the detection method for SO2 residual in FLOS CHRYSANTHEMI. [Methods] Accelerated Solvent Extraction / Ion Chromatography was used to detect the SO2 residual in FLOS CHRYSANTHEMI. Alkaline solution was used as the extracting solution of grinded sample. After extraction by accelerated solvent extraction apparatus and purification by C18 solid phase extraction,the sample was isolated by IonP ac AS9- HC ion chromatographic column with carbonate as the leacheate. Detection was carried out by electrical conductivity detector. [Results] SO2 had good linear relationship within the range of 0. 5- 50 mg / L( r2= 0. 999 7). The quantitative lower limit( LOQ) and and detection limit( LOD) were 0. 17 and 0. 05 mg/L,respectively. With blank sample as the matrix,the average recovery rates at high,middle and low dosages were 82. 9%- 92. 6% with RSD( n = 6) less than 5. 0%. [Conclusions]Compared with the traditional method,this method had the advantages of high extraction rate and automation degree,and was suitable for the large-scale detection of SO2 residual in FLOS CHRYSANTHEMI.

    2015年Z2期 v.6 30-33页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 305K]

Germplasm Resources and Cultivation

  • The Principal Components Analysis of Artemisiae annie L. in Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Junyi CHEN;Yahong ZHANG;Li XU;Li TAN;Qian ZHANG;Shugao TIAN;Zhiguo YANG;Kai CHEN;Hongyang FU;

    Under natural conditions,a total of 36 growth sites for Artemisiae annie L. in Three Gorges Reservoir Region were selected. Factors affecting the artemisinin content in A. annie leaves were researched by principal component analysis. Results showed that the accumulative contribution rate of the first three principal components was 89. 258 6%,which represented the whole information of relevant factors of artemisinin content. Principal component 1 was the sunlight and soil factor of A. annie,principal component 2 was the three-dimensional climate factor,and principal component 3 was the biomass factor. The 36 growth sites of A. annie were classified into four categories. According to the planting needs of artemisinin,the most suitable planting sites for sunlight and soil factor and three-dimensional climate factor were Youyang County and Xiushan County,which were consistent with the actual harvesting sites of raw materials in Three Gorges Reservoir Region.

    2015年Z2期 v.6 14-17页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 165K]
  • Effects of Salt Stress on the Growth Status and Active Substances of Eleutherococcus nodiflorus( Dunn) S. Y. Hu

    Min WEI;Shengzhi ZHENG;Yifeng ZHOU;Ye LU;

    [Objective] To research the effects of salt stress on the growth status and active substances of Eleutherococcus nodiflorus( Dunn)S. Y. Hu. [Methods] E. nodiflorus seedlings were treated by Hoagland culture solutions containing 0,50,100,200 and 400 mmol / L Na2CO3. The response matter contents in leaves and roots of E. nodiflorus were detected. [Results] Under Na2CO3 stress,the survival rate,plant height,biomass and leaf relative water content of E. nodiflorus seedlings gradually reduced; the chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b,total chlorophyll and soluble protein mass fraction of E. nodiflorus seedlings reduced; the mass fraction of proline enhanced significantly; the MDA molality in E. nodiflorus leaves firstly increased and then reduced; the total flavonoids content in of E. nodiflorus roots gradually reduced; and syringin content and total triterpenes content firstly enhanced and then reduced. [Conclusions] E. nodiflorus had relatively strong tolerance to saline-alkali stress. Proper salt stress induced the accumulation of syringin and total triterpenes in E. nodiflorus,and enhanced the yields of target active compounds.

    2015年Z2期 v.6 34-37+40页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 164K]


  • Research Progress on Nerve-Endocrine-Immunity Network

    Yue PENG;Weina MIAO;Tiejian ZHAO;Yanfei WEI;Guiyu LI;

    Systems in human bodies do not work independently when conducting physiological activities and making reaction to external environment,as their functions will be regulated by the multidimensional network structure composed by nerve,endocrine,and immunity system.The three systems each performs their own functions and realizes joint control so that the functions of each cell,organ and system can be normally achieved and thus forms the theory of nerve-endocrine-immunity system. This theory combines nerve,endocrine,and immunity system in an organic way,integrating the relationship of mutual regulation among the three functional systems of human bodies. It informs people of how the three systems of nerve,endocrine,and immunity influence,coordinate and restrict each other to together regulate functional activities of the human body and maintain the stability of internal environment. The generation and development of this theory manifests that modern science also gradually starts exploring regulation of the whole body at the same time of emphasizing in-depth local microexamination,providing a new meaningful research model for understanding the general function of bodies from the level of molecules. In this paper,the author concludes relevant conditions for the realization of the regulation function of this network as composed of three parts: structure foundation,neural master control,and micro-substance foundation,and elaborates on them respectively.

    2015年Z2期 v.6 41-48+54页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 241K]

Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Quality Control

  • Enrichment Technology of Atractylenolide Ⅰ and Ⅲ by Macroporous Resin

    Zhiyuan LIANG;Xiuhai GAN;Liangping WU;Jinxiang ZHANG;

    [Objective] To optimize the enrichment technology of atractylenolideⅠ and Ⅲ by macroporous resin in the crude extracts of RHIZOMA ATRACTYLODIS MACROCEPHALAE. [Methods]Enrichment effects of six macroporous resins on atractylenolideⅠ and Ⅲ were compared by static adsorption and desorption. Macroporous resin having good research results were selected for the dynamic test. [Results] The optimal technology parameters of atractylenolide enrichment by HP20 resin were as follows: concentrations of atractylenolideⅠ and Ⅲ were 25. 6and 59. 7 μg / mL,respectively; sampling quantity was 4 BV and flow rate was 2 BV / h. Impurities were removed by 16 BV water and 6 BV of30% ethanol in turn. Then,elution was carried out by 12 BV of 75% ethanol at 2 BV / h velocity. Under these conditions,the recovery rates of atractylenolideⅠ and Ⅲ were 100% and 98. 24%,respectively. [Conclusions]Enrichment of atractylenolideⅠ and Ⅲ by HP20 macroporou resin was simple and feasible.

    2015年Z2期 v.6 49-54页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 348K]
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